Emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and AmpC-type beta-lactamases in human Salmonella isolated in Spain from 2001 to 2005

Rubén González-Sanz, Silvia Herrera-León, Manuela de la Fuente, Margarita Arroyo, M Aurora Echeita
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2009, 64 (6): 1181-6

OBJECTIVES: To study the resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Salmonella strains isolated from humans in a 5 year period in Spain, and to identify the responsible genes and their dissemination.

METHODS: Twenty-seven isolates were analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify the genes responsible for the beta-lactamase resistance phenotypes. The transferability of the phenotypes was tested by conjugation to Escherichia coli K12J53, plasmid detection with S1-PFGE, hybridization and PCRs of the transconjugants. The genetic relationship was determined by PFGE.

RESULTS: We found bla(CTX-M-9) and bla(CTX-M-10) in Salmonella Virchow PT19. bla(CTX-M-14) was detected in Salmonella (IV) 44:z(4),z(23):-, Salmonella Enteritidis PT6a, Salmonella Typhimurium DT193 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104B. bla(CTX-M-1) was found in Salmonella Litchfield. bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(CTX-M-32) were found in Salmonella Enteritidis PT1. bla(SHV-12) was found in Salmonella Blockley, Salmonella Hadar PT2, Salmonella Enteritidis PT21, Salmonella Enteritidis PT1 and Salmonella Bredeney. bla(SHV-2) was found in Salmonella Livingstone. bla(CMY-2) was detected in Salmonella Bredeney, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Enteritidis PT5b and Salmonella Heidelberg. bla(DHA-1) was detected for the first time in Spain in Salmonella Newport. One strain of Salmonella Senftenberg harboured two extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, bla(SHV-12) and bla(CTX-M-9). We have found a large variety of beta-lactamase families as well as several members of major relevance, such as CTX-M-15, CTX-M-32, CMY-2 and DHA-1. XbaI-PFGE, conjugation assays and S1-PFGE hybridization showed that all these beta-lactamases were mediated by plasmids.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the emergence of a public health risk related to resistance to beta-lactams in Salmonella. The resistance trends need to be monitored carefully.

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