Thinking beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: strategies to further reduce cardiovascular risk

Rakesh K Sharma, Vibhuti N Singh, Hanumanth K Reddy
Vascular Health and Risk Management 2009, 5: 793-9
Several large statin trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some trials have also highlighted the significance of residual cardiovascular risk after treatment of LDL-C to target levels. This reflects the complex nature of residual cardiovascular risk. This residual risk is partially due to low HDL-C and high triglycerides (TG) despite achievement of LDL goals with statin therapy. The NCEP ATP III guidelines reported that low HDL-C is a significant and an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and is inversely related to CHD. Epidemiologic studies have also shown a similar inverse relationship of HDL-C with CHD. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may directly participate in the anti-atherogenic process by promoting efflux of cholesterol of the foam cells of atherogenic lesions. Many studies have demonstrated multiple anti-atherogenic actions of HDL-C and its role in promoting efflux of cholesterol from the foam cells. The residual risk by increased TG with or without low HDL-C can be assessed by calculating non-HDL-C and a reduction in TG results in decreased CHD.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"