JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Strongyloidiasis in transplant patients

Alison C Roxby, Geoffrey S Gottlieb, Ajit P Limaye
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2009 November 1, 49 (9): 1411-23
19807271
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode that can persist in the human host for decades after the initial infection and can progress to fulminant hyperinfection syndrome in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a patient who died of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome 2 months after orthotopic heart transplantation and discuss approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Current practice guidelines recommend screening for and treatment of Strongyloides infection before transplantation, but physicians in the United States often miss opportunities to identify patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Screening tests have limitations, and clinical suspicion remains an important component of the evaluation before transplantation. After immunocompromised patients develop hyperinfection syndrome, diagnosis is often delayed and mortality is high, so emphasis must be placed on screening and treatment before transplantation. We review current strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic intestinal strongyloidiasis in patients who will undergo transplantation and discuss the clinical features and management of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in transplant recipients.

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