Increased number of coagulation products in relationship to red blood cell products transfused improves mortality in trauma patients

Beth H Shaz, Christopher J Dente, Jeffrey Nicholas, Jana B MacLeod, Andrew N Young, Kirk Easley, Qiang Ling, Robert S Harris, Christopher D Hillyer
Transfusion 2010, 50 (2): 493-500

BACKGROUND: Recent data from military and civilian centers suggest that mortality is decreased in massive transfusion patients by increasing the transfusion ratio of plasma and platelet (PLT) products, and fibrinogen in relationship to red blood cell (RBC) products during damage control resuscitation and surgery. This study investigates the relationship of plasma:RBC, PLT:RBC, and cryoprecipitate:RBC transfusion ratios to mortality in massively transfused patients at a civilian Level 1 trauma center.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Demographic, laboratory, transfusion, and outcome data were collected prospectively from February 1, 2007, to January 31, 2009, and retrospectively from February 1, 2005, to January 31, 2007, on all injured patients who underwent massive transfusion (defined as >or=10 RBC products within 24 hr). Mortality was analyzed in relation to the plasma:RBC, PLT:RBC, and cryoprecipitate:RBC transfusion ratios using both univariate and multivariate analyses.

RESULTS: A total of 214 patients received massive transfusion secondary to traumatic injury. High versus low transfusion ratios were associated with improved 30-day survival: plasma:RBC 59% versus 44%, p = 0.03; PLT:RBC 63% versus 33%, p < 0.01; and cryoprecipitate:RBC 66% versus 41%, p < 0.01. By multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis, increased plasma:RBC (p = 0.02) and PLT:RBC (p = 0.02), and decreased age (p = 0.02), ISS (p < 0.01) and total RBCs (p = 0.03) were statistically associated with improved 30-day survival.

CONCLUSIONS: In the civilian setting, plasma, PLT, and cryoprecipitate products significantly increased 30-day survival in trauma patients. Future prospective randomized clinical trials are required to determine the optimal transfusion ratios.

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