Endovascular repair: alternative treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

Wei Guo, Hong-peng Zhang, Xiao-ping Liu, Tai Yin, Xin Jia, Fa-qi Liang, Guo-hua Zhang
Chinese Medical Journal 2009 August 5, 122 (15): 1728-31

BACKGROUND: As an alternative to open aneurysm repair, endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has been applied to ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term outcomes of EVAR for rAAA.

METHODS: From July 1997 to September 2007, 20 men and six women with rAAA (median age, 68 years) were treated with EVAR. Most patients with suspected rAAA underwent emergency computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The procedure was performed under general or local anesthesia. Endovascular clamping was attempted in hemodynamically unstable patients. Bifurcated endografts and aorto-uni-iliac (AUI) endografts with crossover bypass were used. Patients had CT scan prior to discharge, 3, 6, 12 months after discharge, and annually thereafter.

RESULTS: Time between diagnosis and EVAR ranged from 1 hour to 5 days. EVAR was performed under general anesthesia in 21 patients, and under local anesthesia in five patients. Endovascular aortic clamping was performed in four patients. There was no conversion to open surgery during EVAR. Stent-graft insertion was successful in all patients. One patient died during EVAR from acute myocardial infarction. Ten patients had systolic blood pressure < 80 mm Hg. Eleven patients received a blood transfusion. Mean aneurysm size was (47 +/- 12) mm. Mean ICU stay was (8 +/- 3) days, mean hospital stay (18+/- 6) days, and mean procedure time (120 +/- 32) minutes. The 30-day mortality was 23% (6/26 patients), and major morbidity 35% (9/26 patients). Early endoleak occurred in 8/26 patients (31%). The mean follow-up was (18 +/- 7) months. No patient demonstrated migration of the stent-graft.

CONCLUSIONS: EVAR is a safe and effective option for treatment of acute rAAA, independent of the patient's general condition. Immediate and mid-term outcomes are favorable, but long-term outcome is unknown. Multi-center studies are necessary to establish the role of EVAR for rAAA.

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