Evaluation of nine oximes on in vivo reactivation of blood, brain, and tissue cholinesterase activity inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents at lethal dose

Tsung-Ming Shih, Jacob W Skovira, John C O'Donnell, John H McDonough
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods 2009, 19 (6): 386-400
The capability of several oximes (HI-6, HLö7, MMB-4, TMB-4, carboxime, ICD 585, ICD 692, ICD 3805, and 2-PAM) to reactivate in vivo AChE inhibited by the nerve agents sarin, cyclosarin, VX, or VR in blood, brain regions, and peripheral tissues in guinea pigs was examined and compared. Animals were injected subcutaneously with 1.0 LD(50) of sarin, cyclosarin, VR, or VX, and treated intramuscularly 5 min later with one of these compounds. Toxic signs and lethality were monitored, and tissue AChE activities were determined at 60 min after nerve agent. The animals exposed to sarin or cyclosarin, alone or with non-oxime treatment, some died within 60 min; however, when treated with an oxime, no animal died. For VR or VX, all animals survived for 60 min after exposure, with or without non-oxime or oxime therapy. These nerve agents caused differential degrees of inhibition: in whole blood sarin = cyclosarin > VR = VX; in brain regions sarin > cyclosarin > VX > VR; and in peripheral tissues sarin > VX > cyclosarin > VR. These oximes exhibited differential potency in reactivating nerve agent-inhibited AChE in various peripheral tissues, but not AChE activity in the brain regions. There was no difference in the AChE reactivating potency between the dichloride and dimethanesulfonate salts of HI-6. AChE inhibited by sarin was the most and cyclosarin the least susceptible to oxime reactivation. Overall, MMB-4 appeared to be, among all oximes tested, the most effective in vivo AChE reactivator against the broadest spectrum of nerve agents.

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