Attenuation of hemodynamic responses to rapid sequence induction and intubation in healthy patients with a single bolus of esmolol

T J Ebert, J S Bernstein, D F Stowe, D Roerig, J P Kampine
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 1990, 2 (4): 243-52
The effectiveness of a single preinduction intravenous (IV) bolus of esmolol in blunting hemodynamic responses to rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation was evaluated. In a randomized double-blind study, 32 ASA I and II healthy patients scheduled for surgery were monitored with electrocardiography (EKG) lead V5, arterial cannulation, and impedance cardiography. After preoxygenation and a priming dose of vecuronium (0.01 mg/kg), patients received either saline (n = 12), esmolol 100 mg (n = 10), or esmolol 200 mg (n = 10) as an IV bolus (20 ml volume). This procedure was immediately followed by a 5 ml IV saline flush, cricoid pressure, thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg, and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. Patients receiving 200 mg of esmolol had a 50% reduction in the usual tachycardia associated with induction and a greater decline in systolic blood pressure (SP) (by 50%) prior to intubation as compared with the placebo group (p less than 0.05). The increase in diastolic blood pressure (DP) and the reduction in stroke volume (SV) produced by induction and intubation were similar in all the groups. Plasma norepinephrine levels at 1.5 minutes after intubation increased in the esmolol groups about 130% above that measured in the placebo group. This finding was associated with a more gradual return of peripheral resistance to baseline following tracheal intubation. However, both doses of esmolol effectively attenuated heart rate (HR), SP, and rate pressure product (RPP) increases (p less than 0.05 vs placebo) produced by laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.

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