JOURNAL ARTICLE

Dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas: regulation of EXT-downstream molecules and differentiation-related genes

Leida B Rozeman, Inge H Briaire de Bruijn, Patrizia Bacchini, Eric L Staals, Franco Bertoni, Judith V M G Bovée, Pancras Cw Hogendoorn
Modern Pathology 2009, 22 (11): 1489-98
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Dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcoma is a rare subtype of chondrosarcoma arising superimposed on the cartilage cap of a preexisting osteochondroma. It consists of two clearly defined components, a low-grade malignant, well-differentiated cartilage component and a high-grade non-cartilaginous sarcoma. Signaling pathways having a role in normal cartilage development were analyzed in these tumors, and compared with available data of other cartilaginous tumors. Sixteen well-characterized dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas were immunohistochemically analyzed for parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH)-BCL-2, fibroblastic growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor-beta signaling molecules, as well as matrix molecules and p53, comparing the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas with the anaplastic component and with previously published data obtained from conventional grade I and II secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas. Results were correlated with clinical outcome. In the anaplastic component, various lines of differentiation could be found (collagen I (6/16), CD31 (1/16), smooth muscle actin (12/16), muscle-specific actin (12/16) and desmin (2/9)). Compared with the anaplastic component, the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas shows more often expression of cyclin D1 (P=0.05), p53 (P=0.008), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) (P=0.005), and CD44 (P=0.030). Compared with secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas, more samples were positive in the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas for FGF signaling (FGF receptor 3 P=0.000; bFGF P=0.003) and CD44 (P=0.000). Lower expression of BCL-2 (P=0.025) and absence of CD44v3 (P=0.000), a splice variant of CD44, was observed in the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas compared with secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas. With regard to clinical data, PAI-1 expression in the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas correlated with better survival (P=0.019). In conclusion, in the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas, FGF signaling pathway is active, whereas PTHLH signaling seems to be low/downregulated. Interestingly, although the chondrogenic component of dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcoma is CD44+/CD44v3-, secondary peripheral chondrosarcomas is CD44-/CD44v3+, which suggest different splicing (preference). The prognostic value of PAI-1 in dedifferentiated peripheral chondrosarcomas might also be of interest for the more common dedifferentiated central chondrosarcomas.

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