Cyclosporine and steroid therapy in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome

Yuko Hamasaki, Norishige Yoshikawa, Shinzaburo Hattori, Satoshi Sasaki, Kazumoto Iijima, Koichi Nakanishi, Takeshi Matsuyama, Kenji Ishikura, Nahoko Yata, Tetsuji Kaneko, Masataka Honda
Pediatric Nephrology 2009, 24 (11): 2177-85
We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 12-month course of cyclosporine in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Thirty-five patients were enrolled, of whom 28 had minimal change or diffuse mesangial proliferation (MC/DMP), and seven had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). All patients received cyclosporine and prednisolone; patients with FSGS additionally received methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT). The dose of cyclosporine was adjusted to maintain a trough level of 120-150 ng/ml during the initial 3 months of treatment, followed by 80-100 ng/ml during months 4-12. The primary end point was the remission rate at month 12. Remission was achieved in 23 of 28 (82.1%) patients in the MC/DMP group and in six of the seven (85.7%) patients in the FSGS group. Follow-up renal biopsies were performed in 26 patients (nine at month 12, 17 at month 24), and cyclosporine-related nephrotoxicity was detected in one (3.8%). Major adverse events comprised severe bacterial infections (two patients) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (one patient). In conclusion, a high remission rate was achieved in our patient cohort using a combined cyclosporine/ prednisolone treatment regimen in children with SRNS who had MC/DMP and a combined cyclosporine/prednisolone plus MPT regimen in children who had FSGS.

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