Toll-like receptors and innate immunity

Himanshu Kumar, Taro Kawai, Shizuo Akira
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2009 October 30, 388 (4): 621-5
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved innate receptors expressed in various immune and non-immune cells of the mammalian host. TLRs play a crucial role in defending against pathogenic microbial infection through the induction of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. Furthermore, TLRs also play roles in shaping pathogen-specific humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the recent advances in pathogen recognition by TLRs and TLR signaling.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"