JOURNAL ARTICLE

Microglial low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates the effect of tissue-type plasminogen activator on matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in the ischemic brain

Chen Zhang, Jie An, Woldeab B Haile, Ramiro Echeverry, Dudley K Strickland, Manuel Yepes
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 2009, 29 (12): 1946-54
19672275
Studies in animal models of cerebral ischemia indicate that besides its thrombolytic effect, treatment with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) also induces an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic tissue associated with the development of cerebral edema. Earlier, we had shown that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a substrate for tPA in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of the interaction between tPA and microglial LRP1 on MMP-9 activity after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We found that exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions increases MMP-9 activity in wild-type (Wt) and plasminogen-deficient (Plg(-/-)) microglia, but not in tPA (tPA(-/-)) or LRP1-deficient (macLRP-) cells. Treatment with tPA increases MMP-9 expression in tPA(-/-) but not in macLRP- microglia. Middle cerebral artery occlusion increases MMP-9 expression and activity in Wt but not in tPA(-/-) or macLRP- mice, and treatment with tPA increases MMP-9 activity in tPA(-/-) mice but not in macLRP- animals. Finally, MCAO-induced ischemic edema and degradation of the interendothelial right junction protein claudin-5 were significantly attenuated in tPA(-/-) and macLRP- mice. The results of our study indicate that the interaction between tPA and microglial LRP1 increases MMP-9 expression and activity resulting in the degradation of claudin-5 and development of cerebral edema.

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