Outcome in high risk patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

Lisette Okkels Jensen, Anne Kaltoft, Per Thayssen, Hans Henrik Tilsted, Evald Hoej Christiansen, Kirsten Vilain Mikkelsen, Michael Maeng, Knud Noerregaard Hansen, Anton Boel Villadsen, Morten Madsen, Jens Flensted Lassen, Knud Erik Pedersen, Leif Thuesen
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 2010 January 1, 75 (1): 101-8

OBJECTIVE: We examined mortality, risk of myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) in high-risk patients with unprotected left main (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Western Denmark.

BACKGROUND: PCI of left main coronary artery lesions may be an alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk surgical patients.

METHODS: From January 2005 to May 2007, all patients who had unprotected LM PCI with stent implantation were identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. The indications for PCI were: (1) ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), (2) non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina, and (3) stable angina. All patients were followed up for 18 months.

RESULTS: A total of 344 patients were treated with LM PCI (STEMI: 71, NSTEMI/unstable angina: 157, and stable angina: 116). In STEMI patients, the median logistic EuroSCORE was 22.5 (interquartile range 12.5-39.5), in non-STEMI (NSTEMI)/unstable angina patients 13.8 (4.8-23.9), and in stable angina patients 4.8 (2.2-10.4). Mortality after 18 months 38.0, 18.5, and 11.2% (P < 0.001) in patients with STEMI, NSTEMI/unstable angina, and stable angina, respectively. MI after 18 months was 9.9, 6.4, and 6.0% (P = ns), respectively. Four subacute and one late definite stent thrombosis were seen. TLR occurred in 5.6, 4.5, and 6.9% (P = ns) of patients, respectively.

CONCLUSION: After PCI, patients with STEMI and LM culprit lesion have a high-mortality risk, whereas long-term outcome for patients with NSTEMI and stable angina pectoris is comparable with other high surgical risk patients with unprotected left main lesion. Further, TLR rates and risk of stent thrombosis were low.

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