Phase I clinical studies of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-breaker TRC4186: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects

Kumar P Chandra, Ajay Shiwalkar, Jignesh Kotecha, Purav Thakkar, Ambrish Srivastava, Vijay Chauthaiwale, Sanjay K Sharma, Maurice R Cross, Chaitanya Dutt
Clinical Drug Investigation 2009, 29 (9): 559-75

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications through a variety of mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction and structural abnormalities in the vasculature and myocardium. Reducing the AGEs burden and their ensuing pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant effect with associated dysfunctional proteins in various target tissues may retard the progression of and even reverse diabetic macro- and microvascular complications. Pyridinium, 3-[[2-(methylsulfonyl) hydrazino] carbonyl]-1-[2-oxo-2-2-thienyl) ethyl]-chloride (TRC4186) has demonstrated AGE-breaking activities in in vitro experiments and improvement in the endothelial and myocardial function in animal models of diabetes mellitus with reduction of AGEs accumulation in tissues over time. The safety of TRC4186 has been established in in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Thus, this drug is being developed for the treatment of complications associated with diabetes. This investigation set out to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of TRC4186 in healthy human subjects after single and multiple ascending doses, fixed doses in elderly male and female subjects, and with food and different formulations of the compound.

METHODS: Four studies were conducted during phase I clinical development of TRC4186. These were: (i) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with doses of TRC4186 ranging from 250 to 2500 mg administered as an oral solution (total six doses); (ii) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with three doses of TRC4186 ranging from 500 to 2000 mg twice daily for 6 days with a final single dose on day 7; (iii) a randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study to assess the effect of food (fasted vs fed) and formulation (solution vs tablet) with TRC4186 500 mg; (iv) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-ascending study in elderly male and female subjects at a dose of TRC4186 500 mg followed by TRC4186 1000 mg after a 7-day washout period. The safety and tolerability of TRC4186 were assessed by considering adverse events (AEs), ECG findings, vital signs and laboratory investigation results.

RESULTS: TRC4186 was rapidly absorbed, with maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) attained within 1-4 hours. C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were dose proportional over the range 250-2500 mg for a single dose and 500-2000 mg for multiple doses with twice-daily administration. Steady-state conditions were attained within 6 days at different dose levels. C(max) and AUC were not affected by age, sex, race or type of formulation. The tablet formulation of TRC4186 was bioequivalent with the solution form of the drug under fasting conditions and systemic availability of the tablet formulation was reduced by 40% when administered under fed conditions. Terminal elimination and renal clearance in the elderly male (age 69.1 +/- 6.0 years) were not significantly different compared with younger subjects (age 31 +/- 8.6 years).

CONCLUSION: TRC4186 was safe and well tolerated when administered orally with either a single or multiple doses across the different ages, sexes, races and formulations studied. A dose-proportional increase in plasma TRC4186 concentration was seen, with steady state being achieved within 6 days.

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