JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: beyond the ACE inhibitor and angiotensin-II receptor blocker combination

Andrew S Bomback, Robert Toto
American Journal of Hypertension 2009, 22 (10): 1032-40
19661925
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), an important regulator of blood pressure as well as fluid and electrolyte balance, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Blockade of the RAAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-II (ANG-II) receptor blockers (ARBs) lowers blood pressure, decreases morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure, and decreases proteinuria and the rate of decline in renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease. Although these drugs are highly effective and are widely used in the management of cardiovascular and kidney diseases, current treatment regimens with ACEIs and ARBs may not completely suppress the RAAS. Combinations of ACEIs and ARBs have been shown to be superior to either agent alone for some, but certainly not all, composite cardiovascular and kidney outcomes. With the growing appreciation of the role of aldosterone in the pathogenesis of cardiorenal diseases and the recent approval of the direct renin inhibitor (DRI), aliskiren, additional combination strategies have emerged that may offer novel ways to more fully suppress the RAAS. This review examines what is presently known about ACEI/ARB combination therapy and explores alternative combination strategies that include DRIs and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers (MRBs).

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
19661925
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"