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Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism.

Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism (NTPE) is defined as embolisation to the pulmonary circulation of different cell types (adipocytes, haematopoietic, amniotic, trophoblastic or tumour), bacteria, fungi, foreign material or gas. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the different NTPE subtypes. The complex and diverse pathogenesis of different subtypes of emboli is subject to continuing speculation and is certainly far more complex than "simple" mechanical obstruction after embolisation of vascular thrombi. Nonthrombotic emboli may also lead to a severe inflammatory reaction both in the systemic and pulmonary circulation, as well as in the lung. NTPE presents a formidable diagnostic challenge, as the condition often presents with very unusual and peculiar clinical signs that are frequently overlooked. They range from very dramatic acute presentations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome to signs observed late in the disease course. Pathological observations play a key role in the exact diagnosis, and sometimes carefully aspirated blood from the pulmonary artery or specific staining of cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid may be helpful. Frequently, lung biopsies revealing severe granulomatous reaction or unfortunate post-mortem pathological investigations of pulmonary tissue are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Here, we also aim to familiarise the reader with the atypical radiological features of NTPE. Thin-section computed tomography of the lungs showing peculiar radiographic findings, such as a feeding vessel, the so-called tree-in-bud pattern or the appearance of micronodules distributed at the termination of bronchovascular bundles, may be observed in certain forms of NTPE. Increased awareness of NTPE as an underestimated cause of acute and chronic embolism, which may result in acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, is needed. Despite the fact that detailed descriptions of several forms of NTPE have existed for nearly 100 years, well-designed trials have never been performed to evaluate therapy in the different subsets of these patients.

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