Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Influence of PTSD symptom clusters on smoking status among help-seeking Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

INTRODUCTION: Despite the strong association between smoking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mechanisms influencing smoking in this population remain unclear. Previous smoking research has largely examined PTSD as a homogenous syndrome despite the fact that PTSD is composed of four distinct symptom clusters (i.e., reexperiencing, effortful avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal). Examination of the relationship between smoking and PTSD symptom clusters may increase understanding of mechanisms influencing comorbidity between smoking and PTSD. The goals of the present study were to (a) examine the influence of overall PTSD symptom severity on likelihood of smoking and smoking heaviness and (b) examine the influence of each PTSD symptom cluster on smoking.

METHODS: Participants (N = 439) were Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom combat veterans referred to VA mental health services.

RESULTS: Multinomial logistic regression was chosen to accommodate a three-level outcome, in which the likelihood of being a nonsmoker was compared with (a) light smoking (1-9 cigarettes/day), (b) moderate smoking (10-19 cigarettes/day), and (c) heavy smoking (> or =20 cigarettes/day). Results showed that veterans with higher levels of overall PTSD symptomatology were more likely to endorse heavy smoking (Wald = 4.56, p = .03, odds ratio [OR] = 1.65). Veterans endorsing high levels of emotional numbing were also more likely to endorse heavy smoking (Wald = 6.49, p = .01, OR = 1.81); all other PTSD symptom clusters were unrelated to smoking.

DISCUSSION: The association between emotional numbing and heavy daily smoking suggests that veterans with PTSD may smoke to overcome emotional blunting following trauma exposure.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app