Prevalence of renal cell carcinoma in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and chronic renal failure

Pascal Hajj, Sophie Ferlicot, Walid Massoud, Ayman Awad, Yacine Hammoudi, Bernard Charpentier, Antoine Durrbach, Stéphane Droupy, Gérard Benoît
Urology 2009, 74 (3): 631-4

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and the characteristics of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in our series.

METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively all the nephrectomies performed in our department between 1982 and 2003 in patients with ADPKD and chronic renal failure.

RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients (42 males and 37 females) with ADPKD and chronic renal failure underwent 89 nephrectomies; in 10 of 79, both kidneys were removed but not simultaneously. Mean age was 50.4 years (range, 32-69 years). Of 79 patients, 50 had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and were on hemodialysis or had received a transplant for >1 year. On histologic examination, 11 of 89 kidneys were diagnosed with carcinomas. There was 1 patient with bilateral tumor (tubulopapillary Ca) and 3 kidneys (27.3%) with multifocal tumors. Regarding the histologic type, there were 7 of 12 (58.3%) clear cell carcinomas and the remaining 5 (41.7%) were tubulopapillary carcinomas.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of RCC was higher in patients with ADPKD and ESRD, with >1 year on dialysis or renal transplantation undergoing nephrectomy according the protocol. It would be 2 to 3 times more frequent than RCC in patients with ESRD alone. The clinician should maintain a high alert of suspicion for RCC in such patients.

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