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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Temporomandibular disorders and cutaneous allodynia are associated in individuals with migraine

D Bevilaqua-Grossi, R B Lipton, U Napchan, B Grosberg, S Ashina, M E Bigal
Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache 2010, 30 (4): 425-32
19614688
The objective of this study was to estimate and contrast the occurrence of ictal and interictal cutaneous allodynia (CA) in individuals with migraine with and without temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Both TMD and CA are common in migraine and may be associated with migraine transformation from episodic into a chronic form. Herein we hypothesize that TMD contributes to the development of CA and to more severe headaches. In a clinic-based sample of individuals with episodic migraine, the presence of TMD was assessed using the research diagnostic criteria for myofascial or mixed (myofascial and arthralgic) TMD. Ictal CA was quantified using the validated Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12). The ASC-12 measures CA over the preceding month by asking 12 questions about the frequency of allodynia symptoms during headaches. Interictal CA was assessed in the domains of heat, cold and mechanical static allodynia using quantitative sensory testing. Our sample consists of 55 individuals; 40 (73%) had TMD (23 with myofascial TMD and 17 with the mixed type). CA of any severity (as assessed by ASC-12) occurred in 40% of those without TMD (reference group), 86.9% of those with myofascial TMD (P = 0.041, RR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.5-7.0) and in 82.3% of those with mixed TMD (P = 0.02, RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.2-5.3). Individuals with TMD were more likely to have moderate or severe CA associated with their headaches. Interictally (quantitative sensory testing), thresholds for heat and mechanical nociception were significantly lower in individuals with TMD. Cold nociceptive thresholds were not significantly different in migraine patients with and without TMD. TMDs were also associated with change in extra-cephalic pain thresholds. In logistical regression, TMD remained associated with CA after adjusting for aura, gender and age. TMD and CA are associated in individuals with migraine.

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