Expression and role of adrenomedullin in renal tumors and value of its mRNA levels as prognostic factor in clear-cell renal carcinoma

Jean-Laurent Deville, Catherine Bartoli, Caroline Berenguer, Samantha Fernandez-Sauze, Itidal Kaafarani, Christine Delfino, Frederic Fina, Sébastien Salas, Xavier Muracciole, Julien Mancini, Eric Lechevallier, Pierre-Marie Martin, Dominique Figarella-Branger, L'Houcine Ouafik, Laurent Daniel
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer 2009 November 15, 125 (10): 2307-15
Antiangiogenic therapies are used for advanced clear-cell renal carcinomas (cRCC), but without curative possibilities, underlining the need for new therapeutic targets. Adrenomedullin (AM), a multifunctional peptide, is highly expressed in several tumors and plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumor growth through its receptors: calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein 2 and 3 (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3). In this study, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR showed AM mRNA levels were higher in cRCC and in chromophobe renal carcinomas (chRCC) than in normal renal tissue. Interestingly, AM mRNA expression in cRCC correlated strongly with VEGF-A mRNA expression. Immunohistochemically, AM, CLR and RAMP2 were localized in the carcinomatous epithelial compartment of cRCC. Interestingly, RAMP3 immunostaining was found only in the inflammatory cells that infiltrated tumors, suggesting a cross talk between tumor cells and the microenvironment. We also observed that cRCC cells BIZ and 786-O expressed and secreted AM into the culture medium. In vitro, exogenous AM treatment stimulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, indicating the cell can respond to AM. The action of AM was specific and was mediated by the CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3 receptors. Clinical data showed the prognostic value of AM. High AM mRNA levels were associated with an increased risk of relapse after curative nephrectomy for cRCC. These findings highlight the implication of the AM pathway in the metastatic process and the prognostic relevance of AM in cRCC and point to a potential new therapeutic target.

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