The effect of fine and coarse particulate air pollution on mortality: a national analysis

Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz
Environmental Health Perspectives 2009, 117 (6): 898-903

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on mortality, data limitations have resulted in fewer studies of both particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <or= 2.5 microm (PM(2.5); fine particles) and of coarse particles (particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 and < 10 microm; PM coarse). We conducted a national, multicity time-series study of the acute effect of PM(2.5) and PM coarse on the increased risk of death for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and respiratory mortality for the years 1999-2005.

METHOD: We applied a city- and season-specific Poisson regression in 112 U.S. cities to examine the association of mean (day of death and previous day) PM(2.5) and PM coarse with daily deaths. We combined the city-specific estimates using a random effects approach, in total, by season and by region.

RESULTS: We found a 0.98% increase [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.22] in total mortality, a 0.85% increase (95% CI, 0.46-1.24) in CVD, a 1.18% increase (95% CI, 0.48-1.89) in MI, a 1.78% increase (95% CI, 0.96-2.62) in stroke, and a 1.68% increase (95% CI, 1.04-2.33) in respiratory deaths for a 10-microg/m(3) increase in 2-day averaged PM(2.5). The effects were higher in spring. For PM coarse, we found significant but smaller increases for all causes analyzed.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our analysis showed an increased risk of mortality for all and specific causes associated with PM(2.5), and the risks are higher than what was previously observed for PM(10). In addition, coarse particles are also associated with more deaths.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"