Hepatic encephalopathy: pathophysiology and emerging therapies

Vinay Sundaram, Obaid S Shaikh
Medical Clinics of North America 2009, 93 (4): 819-36, vii
Hepatic encephalopathy is characterized by neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver failure. Severe hepatic encephalopathy is an indication for liver transplantation as it portends poor outcome. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy involves correction of precipitating factors such as sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding, medications, and electrolyte imbalance. Effective therapies include lactulose and antibiotics such as neomycin, metronidazole, and rifaximin.

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