RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Biomechanical stability of an arthroscopic anterior capsular shift and suture anchor repair in anterior shoulder instability: a human cadaveric shoulder model.

It was hypothesized that an arthroscopic Bankart repair with suture anchors supplies sufficient anterior shoulder stability, which cannot be improved by an additional capsular shift. In an experimental biomechanical human cadaver study, we tested ten fresh human cadaver shoulders in a robot-assisted shoulder simulator. External rotation and glenohumeral translation were measured at 0 degrees and 80 degrees of glenohumeral abduction. All measurements were performed under the following conditions: on the non-operated shoulder; following the setting of three arthroscopic portals; following an arthroscopic anterior capsular shift; following a simulated Bankart lesion; and following an arthroscopic Bankart repair. The application of three arthroscopic portals resulted in a significant increase of the anterior (P = 0.01) and antero-inferior translation (P = 0.03) at 0 degrees and 80 degrees abduction, as well as an increase in external rotation at 80 degrees abduction (P = 0.03). Capsular shift reduced external rotation (P = 0.03), but did not significantly decrease translation. Simulating anterior shoulder instability, glenohumeral translation significantly increased, ranging from 50 to 279% of physiological translation. Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization resulted in a decrease of translation in all tested directions to approximately physiologic levels. External rotation in 0 degrees abduction was thus decreased significantly (P = 0.003) to an average of 19 degrees . The study proved that an arthroscopic anterior capsular shift in a cadaveric model decreases external rotation without a significant influence on glenohumeral translation. Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization with suture anchors thus sufficiently restores increased glenohumeral translation, but also decreases external rotation in neutral abduction. An anatomic reconstruction of the Bankart lesion without overconstraining of the antero-inferior capsule should therefore be the aim in arthroscopic anterior shoulder stabilization.

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