Distally based saphenous nerve-great saphenous veno-fasciocutaneous compound flap with nutrient vessels: microdissection and clinical application

Fahui Zhang, Chao Chun Zhang, Songqing Lin, Guodong Zhang, Heping Zheng
Annals of Plastic Surgery 2009, 63 (1): 81-8
Improvements were made by us in several distally based pedicled flaps of the nutrient vessels of the saphenous nerve with lower rotation points. However, these flaps are still insufficient for trauma complicated by bone defects. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic study of the anatomic theory on distally based pedicled compound flaps of the nutrient vessels of the saphenous nerve and great saphenous vein with 30 lower limbs of adult cadavers injected with red gelatin through the femoral artery. It is found that the nutrient vessels of the saphenous nerve-great saphenous vein consist of arteria saphena, fascial cutaneous branches of the inferior medial genicular artery intermuscular spatium branches of the posterior tibial artery, osteocutaneous perforators, superior ankle perforators, medial anterior malleolus perforators, and fascial perforators of the ankle tunnel region. Musculocutaneous perforators of the interior gastrocnemius muscle also enter the nutrient vessels of cutaneous nerve-superficial vein. From May 2004 to February 2007, 23 cases of skin flaps for treating defective and infectious wound, 10 cases of musculocutaneous flaps for treating ulcus in the lower segment of the leg, medullitis, and exposure of bone, 3 cases for medial calcaneus medullitis, 7 cases of skeletal flaps for treating tibial defects and nonunion of calcaneal bone. In 2-15-month follow-ups all cases presented with survived flaps, and healed surfaces of the wound and the osteomyelitis. For cases of bone nonunion, it showed that the nonunion healed after 18 weeks, with recovery of work ability after year. Three types of the distally based pedicled flaps or compound flaps of vessels of different perforating branches can be designed for repairing tissue defects caused by trauma, such as bone defects in the distal leg, nonunion, large necrotic space as well as traumatic surface of the foot and ankle.

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