JOURNAL ARTICLE

Excretory-secretory products from Paragonimus westermani increase nitric oxide production in microglia in PKC-dependent and -independent manners

Youngnam Jin, In Young Choi, Chunsook Kim, Suyoung Hong, Won-Ki Kim
Neuroscience Research 2009, 65 (2): 141-7
19539668
Excretory-secretory products (ESP) from helminthic parasites may play pivotal roles in the immune regulation in hosts. Previously, we reported that ESP produced from Paragonimus westermani induced morphological activation of microglial cells and markedly stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In the present study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C and protein kinase A in MAPKs-dependent NO production by ESP. We found that treatment with protein kinase C inhibitor Go6976 strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but not ERK, of MAPKs and decreased the production of NO in ESP-stimulated microglial cells. Inhibition of ERK, p38 or PKC decreased the ESP-induced activation of NF-kappaB, an important transcription factor for iNOS expression. Furthermore, ESP increased the level of p-CREB in microglial cells. However, adenylyl cyclase activator (forskolin), adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536), cAMP analogue (db-cAMP) or protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) was not able to change iNOS expression and NO production in ESP-treated microglial cells. It implies that the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway is not implicated in the ESP-evoked NO production in microglial cells. Thus, our results indicate that ESP stimulates microglial expression of iNOS via both PKC-dependent and -independent MAPKs phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
19539668
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"