Mechanical complications during central venous cannulations in pediatric patients

Corsino Rey, Francisco Alvarez, Victoria De La Rua, Alberto Medina, Andrés Concha, Juan José Díaz, Sergio Menéndez, Marta Los Arcos, Juan Mayordomo-Colunga
Intensive Care Medicine 2009, 35 (8): 1438-43

OBJECTIVE: Identification of early mechanical complications (EMC) of central venous catheterizations (CVC) in pediatric patients and determination of EMC risk factors.

DESIGN: Prospective observational study.

SETTING: Pediatric intensive-care unit in a university hospital.

PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Eight-hundred and twenty-five CVC were performed in 546 patients. Age, weight, gender, mechanical ventilation, analgesia, resident CVC failure, CVC indication, admission diagnosis, emergency or scheduled procedure, type of catheter (diameter, lumen number), catheter final location, number of attempts, and EMC were recorded. Risk factors for EMC were determined by multivariate analysis.

RESULTS: Median patient age was 22.0 months (0-216 months). CVC was an emergency procedure in 421 (51%) cases, scheduled in 336 (40.7%), and guide-wire exchanged in 68 (8.2%). There were 293 (35.5%) internal jugular, 116 (14.1%) subclavian, and 416 (50.4%) femoral catheters. CVC was performed by staff physicians in 35.8% cases, supervised residents in 43.4%, and staff after resident failure in 20.8%. 151 EMC occurred in 144 CVC (17.5%). The most common EMC were arterial puncture (n = 60; 7.2%), catheter malposition (n = 39; 4.7%), arrhythmias (n = 19; 2.3%), and hematoma (n = 12; 1.4%). Resident failure to perform CVC (OR 2.53; CI 95% 1.53-4.16), high venous access (subclavian or jugular) (OR 1.91; CI 95% 1.26-2.88), and number of attempts (OR 1.10; CI 95% 1.03-1.17) were independently associated with EMC.

CONCLUSIONS: EMC of CVC were common in a teaching university hospital, but severe complications were very uncommon. Resident failure to perform CVC, high venous access, and number of attempts were independent risk factors for EMC of CVC.

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