JOURNAL ARTICLE

Voluntary exercise training in mice increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes and decreases the expression of TNF-alpha in intestinal lymphocytes

L Hoffman-Goetz, N Pervaiz, J Guan
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2009, 23 (4): 498-506
19486647
Acute exercise in mice induces intestinal lymphocyte (IL) apoptosis. Freewheel running reduces apoptosis and forced exercise training increases splenocyte antioxidant levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of freewheel running and acute exercise on mouse IL numbers and concentrations of apoptosis and antioxidant proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines in IL. Female C57BL/6 mice had access to in-cage running wheels (RW) or cages without wheels (NRW) for 16 weeks and were randomized at the end of training to no exercise control (TC) or to treadmill exercise with sacrifice after 90 min of running (TREAD; 30 min, 22 m min(-1); 30 min, 25 m min(-1); 30 min, 28 m min(-1); 2 degrees slope). IL were analyzed for pro-(caspase 3 and 7) and anti-(Bcl-2) apoptotic proteins, endogenous antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase: GPx; catalase: CAT) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha. RW mice had higher cytochrome oxidase (p<0.001) and citrate synthase (p<0.01) activities in plantaris and soleus muscles and higher GPx and CAT expression in IL (p<0.05) (indicative of training) compared with NRW mice. TNF-alpha expression was lower (p<0.05) and IL numbers higher (p<0.05) in RW vs. NRW mice. No training effect was observed for apoptotic protein expression, although TREAD resulted in higher caspase and lower Bcl-2. These results suggest that freewheel running in mice for 16 weeks enhances antioxidant and reduces TNF-alpha expression in IL but does not reduce pro-apoptotic protein expression after acute exercise. Results are discussed in terms of implications for inflammatory bowel diseases where apoptotic proteins and TNF-alpha levels are elevated.

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