The efficacy and safety of saxagliptin when added to metformin therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes with metformin alone

Ralph A DeFronzo, Miguel N Hissa, Alan J Garber, Jorge Luiz Gross, Raina Yuyan Duan, Shoba Ravichandran, Roland S Chen
Diabetes Care 2009, 32 (9): 1649-55

OBJECTIVE: This 24-week trial assessed the efficacy and safety of saxagliptin as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycemic control with metformin alone.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of saxagliptin (2.5, 5, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo plus a stable dose of metformin (1,500-2,500 mg) in 743 patients (A1C > or =7.0 and < or =10.0%). Efficacy analyses were performed using an ANCOVA model using last observation carried forward methodology on primary (A1C) and secondary (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] and postprandial glucose [PPG] area under the curve [AUC]) end points.

RESULTS: Saxagliptin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg) plus metformin demonstrated statistically significant adjusted mean decreases from baseline to week 24 versus placebo in A1C (-0.59, -0.69, and -0.58 vs. +0.13%; all P < 0.0001), FPG (-14.31, -22.03, and -20.50 vs. +1.24 mg/dl; all P < 0.0001), and PPG AUC (-8,891, -9,586, and -8,137 vs. -3,291 mg . min/dl; all P < 0.0001). More than twice as many patients achieved A1C <7.0% with 2.5, 5, and 10 mg saxagliptin versus placebo (37, 44, and 44 vs. 17%; all P < 0.0001). beta-Cell function and postprandial C-peptide, insulin, and glucagon AUCs improved in all saxagliptin treatment groups at week 24. Incidence of hypoglycemic adverse events and weight reductions were similar to those with placebo.

CONCLUSIONS: Saxagliptin once daily added to metformin therapy was generally well tolerated and led to statistically significant improvements in glycemic indexes versus placebo added to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin alone.

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