Determination of microcystin-LR and its metabolites in snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Lake Taihu, China

Dawen Zhang, Ping Xie, Jun Chen, Ming Dai, Tong Qiu, Yaqin Liu, Gaodao Liang
Chemosphere 2009, 76 (7): 974-81
This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys.

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