Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The effective time and concentration of nitrous oxide to reduce venipuncture pain in children.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time of administration and concentration of inhaled nitrous oxide (N(2)O) needed to reduce the pain associated with intravenous (i.v.) cannulation in children.

DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study.

SETTING: Operating room of a children's hospital.

PATIENTS: 73 ASA physical status I and II children, aged 6-15 years, scheduled for elective day or non-day surgery.

INTERVENTIONS: Children were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups prior to i.v. insertion of a 24-gauge catheter in the dorsum of the hand: Group 1 (n = 18): 50% N(2)O in O(2) for three minutes; Group 2 (n = 18): 50% N(2)O in O(2) for 5 minutes; Group 3 (n = 18): 70% N(2)O in O(2) for three minutes; or Group 4 (n = 19): 70% N(2)O in O(2) for 5 minutes.

MEASUREMENTS: Just after the venous cannulation, degree of pain was assessed by examining the faces of the patient by the parent and an operating room nurse.

MAIN RESULTS: Pain scores obtained from parents of children in Groups 3 and 4 were significantly lower than from those in Groups 1 and 2. Pain scores from the nurse in Group 3 was significantly lower than those in Group 1. However, there was no significant difference in pain score between Group 3 and Group 4. Frequency of side effects was similar among the 4 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent N(2)O in O(2) given for three minutes was effective for reducing venipuncture pain in children.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app