JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

The effective time and concentration of nitrous oxide to reduce venipuncture pain in children

Atsushi Furuya, Masaki Ito, Tasuku Fukao, Mayumi Suwa, Masatoshi Nishi, Yoh Horimoto, Hiroaki Sato, Katsumi Okuyama, Tadahiko Ishiyama, Takashi Matsukawa
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2009, 21 (3): 190-3
19464612

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the time of administration and concentration of inhaled nitrous oxide (N(2)O) needed to reduce the pain associated with intravenous (i.v.) cannulation in children.

DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study.

SETTING: Operating room of a children's hospital.

PATIENTS: 73 ASA physical status I and II children, aged 6-15 years, scheduled for elective day or non-day surgery.

INTERVENTIONS: Children were randomly allocated to one of 4 groups prior to i.v. insertion of a 24-gauge catheter in the dorsum of the hand: Group 1 (n = 18): 50% N(2)O in O(2) for three minutes; Group 2 (n = 18): 50% N(2)O in O(2) for 5 minutes; Group 3 (n = 18): 70% N(2)O in O(2) for three minutes; or Group 4 (n = 19): 70% N(2)O in O(2) for 5 minutes.

MEASUREMENTS: Just after the venous cannulation, degree of pain was assessed by examining the faces of the patient by the parent and an operating room nurse.

MAIN RESULTS: Pain scores obtained from parents of children in Groups 3 and 4 were significantly lower than from those in Groups 1 and 2. Pain scores from the nurse in Group 3 was significantly lower than those in Group 1. However, there was no significant difference in pain score between Group 3 and Group 4. Frequency of side effects was similar among the 4 groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent N(2)O in O(2) given for three minutes was effective for reducing venipuncture pain in children.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
19464612
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.