Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their synergistic effect with antibiotics: a study against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

Amanulla Mohammed Fayaz, Kulandaivelu Balaji, Morukattu Girilal, Ruchi Yadav, Pudupalayam Thangavelu Kalaichelvan, Ramasamy Venketesan
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 2010, 6 (1): 103-9
The development of a reliable green chemistry process for the biogenic synthesis of nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known for their inhibitory and bactericidal effect. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in recent years and is a major challenge for the health care industry. In the present investigation the use of the fungus Trichoderma viride for the extracellular biosynthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate solution is reported. It was observed that the aqueous silver (Ag(+)) ions, when exposed to a filtrate of T. viride, were reduced in solution, thereby leading to formation of extremely stable AgNPs. These AgNPs were characterized by means of several techniques. The nanoparticles show maximum absorbance at 420 nm on ultraviolet-visible spectra. The presence of proteins was identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. The reduction of Ag(+) ions to elemental silver was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectrophotometry. Electrokinetic measurements (zeta potential) of AgNPs as a function of pH in 1 x 10(-3) mol dm(-3) aqueous solution were evaluated. The transmission electron micrograph revealed the formation of polydispersed nanoparticles of 5-40 nm, and the presence of elemental silver was confirmed by energy-dispersed spectroscopy analysis. The nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various antibiotics against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activities of ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol were increased in the presence of AgNPs against test strains. The highest enhancing effect was observed for ampicillin against test strains. The result showed that the combination of antibiotics with AgNPs have better antimicrobial effects. A mechanism was also proposed to explain this phenomenon. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP-s) represent an important nanomedicine-based advance in the fight against polyresistent bacteria. In this study, the fungus Trichoderma viride was utilized for extracellular biosynthesis of extremely stable Ag Nps. The antibacterial activities of kanamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and especially of ampicillin were increased in the presence of Ag NPs against test strains.

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