Three-dimensional in vivo kinematics of the subtalar joint during dorsi-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion

Akira Goto, Hisao Moritomo, Tomonobu Itohara, Tetsu Watanabe, Kazuomi Sugamoto
Foot & Ankle International 2009, 30 (5): 432-8

BACKGROUND: It is difficult to determine the kinematics of the subtalar joint because of its anatomical and functional complexity. The purpose of the study was to clarify the 3D kinematics of the subtalar joint in vivo.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were four healthy female volunteers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were acquired in seven positions during dorsi-plantarflexion (DPF) and in 10 positions during inversion-eversion (IE) at intervals of 10 degrees. MRI data of the talus and calcaneus in the neutral position were superimposed on images of the other positions using voxel-based registration, and relative motions and axes of rotation were visualized and quantitatively calculated.

RESULTS: The calcaneus always rotated from dorsolateral to medioplantar during DPF and IE, and the motion plane was very similar to that of the entire foot in IE. The axes of rotation of the calcaneus relative to the talus during DPF and IE had a very close spatial relationship, running obliquely from antero-dorso-medial to postero-planto-lateral and penetrating the talar neck. The rotation angle around each of these calcaneal axes tended to be greater in IE (20 degrees +/- 2 degrees) than in DPF (16 degrees +/- 3 degrees). In DPF, motion of the calcaneus relative to the talus occurred predominantly around maximum dorsiflexion and plantarflexion, with little movement observed at intermediate positions. During IE, the calcaneus exhibited uninterrupted motion related to foot movement.

CONCLUSION: The subtalar joint is essentially a uniaxial joint with a motion plane almost identical to that of IE of the entire foot.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge of normal subtalar kinematics may be helpful when evaluating pathologic conditions.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"