Impact of glitazones on metabolic and haemodynamic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

B Chogtu, N P Singh, S Chawla, U Gupta
Singapore Medical Journal 2009, 50 (4): 395-9

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and high blood pressure. These abnormalities are recognised risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Insulin-sensitising drugs exert an effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was done with the objective of elucidating the differences in glycaemic control, plasma lipid levels and blood pressure in diabetic patients who were prescribed glitazones in combination with sulphonylureas.

METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either pioglitazone or rosiglitazone in addition to glimepiride in an open-labelled study. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting lipid profile and blood pressure were recorded at baseline and at various intervals until the end of the study period at 12 weeks.

RESULTS: A total of 56 patients (28 in the pioglitazone group and 28 in the rosiglitazone group) completed the study. There was no significant difference in the baseline values of various parameters between the two treatment groups. The efficacy of the two treatment groups was similar in terms of the maintenance of blood glucose levels (fasting blood glucose, p-value is 0.10; postprandial blood glucose, p-value is 0.95; glycosylated haemoglobin, p-value is 0.30) and the effect on blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, p-value is 0.45; diastolic blood pressure, p-value is 0.95), while the pioglitazone group showed significantly better efficacy in improving the lipid profile compared to the rosiglitazone group (total cholesterol, p-value is 0.002; triglycerides, p-value is 0.002; low density lipoprotein, p-value is 0.005; and high density lipoprotein, p-value is 0.43).

CONCLUSION: The two drugs showed a similar effect on blood glucose levels and blood pressure. However, the pioglitazone group was superior to the rosiglitazone group in improving the lipid profile.

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