A longitudinal study of surgical outcome and its determinants following posterior cortex epilepsy surgery

Lara E Jehi, Rebecca O'Dwyer, Imad Najm, Andreas Alexopoulos, William Bingaman
Epilepsia 2009, 50 (9): 2040-52

PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal seizure outcome and identify potential prognostic indicators following posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE) surgery.

METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent a parietal, occipital, or parietooccipital resections between 1994 and 2006, using survival analysis and multivariate regression with Cox proportional hazard modeling. A favorable outcome was defined as Engel Class I at last follow-up.

RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were identified with a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range 1-12 years). The estimated chance of seizure freedom (SF) was 73.1% at 6 postoperative months, 68.5% at 1 year, 65.8% at between 2 and 5 years, and 54.8% at 6 years and beyond. Most recurrences (75%) occurred within the first 6 postoperative months. Parietal resections had a worse outcome than occipital or parietooccipital resections (52% SF vs. 89% and 93%, respectively, at 5 years). Independent predictors of recurrence included an epilepsy etiology other than tumor or dysplasia [risk ratio (RR) 2.29], limiting resection to a lesionectomy (RR 2.10), having ipsilateral temporal spiking on preoperative scalp electroencephalography (EEG) (RR 2.06), or any ipsilateral spiking on postoperative EEG (RR 2.70) (Log likelihood-ratio test p < 0.0001). Only 40-50% of patients with a poor outcome predictor were SF at 5 postoperative years as opposed to about 80% otherwise. In surgical failures, recurrent seizure frequency was related directly to baseline seizure frequency and to the presence of ipsilateral spiking on postoperative EEG.

DISCUSSION: These data highlight favorable long-term outcomes following PCE surgery. Limited surgical resection and diffuse baseline epileptogenicity may be important predictors of seizure recurrence.

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