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Quantifying interfraction and intrafraction tumor motion in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using respiration-correlated cone beam computed tomography

Jean-Pierre Bissonnette, Kevin N Franks, Thomas G Purdie, Douglas J Moseley, Jan-Jakob Sonke, David A Jaffray, Laura A Dawson, Andrea Bezjak
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2009 November 1, 75 (3): 688-95
19395200

PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an effective treatment for medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. However, changes in the patient's breathing patterns during the course of SBRT may result in a geographic miss or an overexposure of healthy tissues to radiation. However, the precise extent of these changes in breathing pattern is not well known. We evaluated the inter- and intrafractional changes in tumor motion amplitude (DeltaM) over an SBRT course.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighteen patients received image-guided SBRT delivered in three fractions; this therapy was done with abdominal compression in four patients. For each fraction, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed for tumor localization (+/- 3-mm tolerance) and then repeated to confirm geometric accuracy. Additional CBCT images were acquired at the midpoint and end of each SBRT fraction. Respiration-correlated CBCT (rcCBCT) reconstructions allowed retrospective assessment of inter- and intrafractional DeltaM by a comparison of tumor displacements in all four-dimensional CT and rcCBCT scans. The DeltaM was measured in mediolateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions.

RESULTS: A total of 201 rcCBCT images were analyzed. The mean time from localization of the tumor to the end-fraction CBCT was 35 +/- 7 min. Compared with the motion recorded on four-dimensional CT, the mean DeltaM was 0.4, 1.0, and 0.4 mm, respectively, in the mediolateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions. On treatment, the observed DeltaM was, on average, <1 mm; no DeltaM was statistically different with respect to the initial rcCBCT. However, patients in whom abdominal compression was used showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the variance of DeltaM with respect to the initial rcCBCT in the superior-inferior direction.

CONCLUSIONS: The inter- and intrafractional DeltaM that occur during a course of lung SBRT are small. However, abdominal compression causes larger variations in the time spent on the treatment couch and in the inter- and intrafractional DeltaM values.

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