Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats

A A Adeneye
Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine 2008, 18 (4): 211-5

BACKGROUND: Alcohol decoction of Citrus paradisi Macfad (Rutaceae) seed is reputed for the local management of array of human diseases including, anemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity by some Yoruba herbalists (SouthWest, Nigeria). Despite its historic use, scientific evaluation of its folkloric use in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce.

OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed at investigating the glucose and lipid lowering effects of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (MECP) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the phytochemical analysis of the extract was also conducted using standard procedures.

METHODS: Young adult, male, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups I - VI with 12 rats in each group. Group I rats were the normal untreated rats while group II rats served as the diabetic untreated rats while Rats in groups III - VI served as diabetic rats treated with 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day MECP and 20 mg/kg/ day metformin, respectively, for 30 days. On the 15th and respectively, 31st day, blood samples from the fasted rats were obtained for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-c) from the sacrificed rats.

RESULTS: Oral treatment with 100 - 600 mg/kg/day MECP, for 30 days, resulted in significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001) reductions in FPG, TG, TC, LDL-c, VLDL-c in the diabetic rats, effects which were comparable to that of metformin. The extract also caused significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) rise in HDL-c values in the alloxan diabetic rats. Phytochemical result showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins and saponin in varying concentrations. The biological effects recorded for the extract could be due to any or a combination of these phytochemical constituents.

CONCLUSION: Results of this study lend support to the traditional use of grapefruit seeds in the management of type 1 diabetic patients and may suggest a role in orthodox management of the disease.

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