Infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients because of treatment with immunosuppressive agents. Infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are infrequent but may be a major cause of morbidity. Treatment is associated with therapeutic limitations due to drug interactions with immunosuppressive agents and enhanced toxicity. Treatment of NTM infection most commonly involves surgery, reducing the doses of immunosuppressive medications and/or therapy with antimycobacterial medications The American Thoracic Society recommends isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. The current duration for treatment of pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium kansasii is 18 months. We describe the case of an immunosuppressed liver transplant recipient with poor outcome due to acute cholangitis who also developed concomitant infection with an uncommon organism, M. kansasii, in the late posttransplantation period.
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