Cyclooxygenase-2 Gly587Arg variant is associated with differential enzymatic activity and risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma

Dan Zhao, Xuemei Zhang, Yongli Guo, Wen Tan, Dongxin Lin
Molecular Carcinogenesis 2009, 48 (10): 934-41
Functional SNPs in the COX-2 promoter region have been associated with susceptibility to esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, we investigated SNPs in the COX-2 coding region and their impact on risk of ESCC. The coding region of COX-2 in DNAs from 30 Han Chinese individuals was sequenced to identify SNPs. Different coding region variants identified were cloned and expressed in MCE-7 cells for the measurement of COX-2 enzymatic activity. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP in 1026 patients with ESCC and 1270 controls and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed by logistic regression model. A SNP at exon 10 (1759G>A, rs3218625) was identified, which causes (587)Gly to (587)Arg amino acid substitution. Enzymatic assays using different recombinant COX-2 variants showed that COX-2-(587)Arg had significantly higher activity towards arachidonic acid than COX-2-(587)Gly (13.8 +/- 3.2 U/mg vs. 11.2 +/- 2.4 U/mg; P = 0.012). Case-control analysis showed that 10.2% of ESCC patients carried the 1759A allele whereas only 5.4% of controls had this allele (P < 0.0001). No homozygous 1759AA genotype was presented in controls albeit two patients carrying this genotype. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that subjects with at least one 1759A allele had increased risk for the development of ESCC (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.39-2.62) compared with those with the 1759GG genotype. These results extend our previous findings and indicate that inherited variant in arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzyme, which results in heightened enzymatic activity, may confer susceptibility to ESCC.

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