Angiotensin II activates I kappaB kinase phosphorylation of RelA at Ser 536 to promote myofibroblast survival and liver fibrosis

Fiona Oakley, Victoria Teoh, Gemma Ching-A-Sue, Ramon Bataller, Jordi Colmenero, Julie R Jonsson, Aristides G Eliopoulos, Martha R Watson, Derek Manas, Derek A Mann
Gastroenterology 2009, 136 (7): 2334-2344.e1

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF)-kappaB promotes survival of hepatic myofibroblasts and fibrogenesis through poorly defined mechanisms. We investigated the activities of angiotensin II and I kappaB kinase (IKK) in regulation of NF-kappaB activity and the role of these proteins in liver fibrosis in rodents and humans.

METHODS: Phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB subunit RelA at serine 536 (P-Ser(536)-RelA) was detected by immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. P-Ser(536)-RelA function was assessed using vectors that expressed mutant forms of RelA, cell-permeable blocking peptides, and assays for RelA nuclear transport and apoptosis. Levels of P-Ser(536)-RelA were compared with degree of fibrosis in liver sections from chronically injured rats and patients with hepatitis C virus-mediated fibrosis who had been treated with the AT1 antagonist losartan.

RESULTS: Constitutive P-Ser(536)-RelA is a feature of human hepatic myofibroblasts, both in vitro and in situ in diseased livers. Autocrine angiotensin II stimulated IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RelA at Ser(536), which was required for nuclear transport and transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Inhibition of angiotensin II, the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), or IKK blocked Ser(536) phosphorylation and stimulated myofibroblast apoptosis. Treatment of fibrotic rodent liver with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril or the IKK inhibitor sulphasalazine resulted in loss of P-Ser(536)-RelA-positive myofibroblasts and fibrosis regression. In human liver samples, increased numbers of P-Ser(536)-RelA-positive cells were associated with fibrosis that regressed following exposure to losartan.

CONCLUSIONS: An autocrine pathway that includes angiotensin II, IKK, and P-Ser(536)-RelA regulates myofibroblast survival and can be targeted to stimulate therapeutic regression of liver fibrosis.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"