Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Review
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Room air or 100% oxygen for resuscitation of infants with perinatal depression.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommends initiating neonatal resuscitation with concentrations of oxygen between 21 and 100%. This wide range of oxygen concentrations recommended for resuscitation highlights the lack of evidence supporting either 21 or 100% O2. The purpose of this review is to analyze the efficacy of reoxygenation with 100% O2 or room air on rates of return of spontaneous circulation--the main goal of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies suggest that reoxygenation initiated with room air is effective in depressed neonates born with a preserved circulation. Reoxygenation with room air in these infants is associated with lower levels of circulating markers of oxidative stress than reoxygenation with 100% oxygen. However, there is no evidence that resuscitation with room air is as effective as that with 100% oxygen in restoration of an arrested circulation. In fact, animal studies indicate that, in comparison with 100% oxygen, reoxygenation with room air results in more sluggish restoration of depressed cerebral and systemic circulations.

SUMMARY: Prior to a revision of current neonatal resuscitation guidelines it must be determined whether resuscitation initiated with room air results in the same rate of return of spontaneous circulation as resuscitation initiated with 100% oxygen.

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