A limited group of class I histone deacetylases acts to repress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression

Kara S Keedy, Nancie M Archin, Adam T Gates, Amy Espeseth, Daria J Hazuda, David M Margolis
Journal of Virology 2009, 83 (10): 4749-56
Silencing of the integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome in resting CD4(+) T cells is a significant contributor to the persistence of infection, allowing the virus to evade both immune detection and pharmaceutical attack. Nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are capable of inducing expression of quiescent HIV-1 in latently infected cells. However, potent global HDAC inhibition can induce host toxicity. To determine the specific HDACs that regulate HIV-1 transcription, we evaluated HDAC1 to HDAC11 RNA expression and protein expression and compartmentalization in the resting CD4(+) T cells of HIV-1-positive, aviremic patients. HDAC1, -3, and -7 had the highest mRNA expression levels in these cells. Although all HDACs were detected in resting CD4(+) T cells by Western blot analysis, HDAC5, -8, and -11 were primarily sequestered in the cytoplasm. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we detected HDAC1, -2, and -3 at the HIV-1 promoter in Jurkat J89GFP cells. Targeted inhibition of HDACs by small interfering RNA demonstrated that HDAC2 and HDAC3 contribute to repression of HIV-1 long terminal repeat expression in the HeLa P4/R5 cell line model of latency. Together, these results suggest that HDAC inhibitors specific for a limited number of class I HDACs may offer a targeted approach to the disruption of persistent HIV-1 infection.

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