FR167653 improves renal recovery and decreases inflammation and fibrosis after renal ischemia reperfusion injury

Jerome Cau, Frederic Favreau, Keqiang Zhang, Guillaume Febrer, Gilles Regnault de la Motte, Jean-Baptiste Ricco, Jean-Michel Goujon, Thierry Hauet
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2009, 49 (3): 728-40

OBJECTIVE: Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) secondary to induced warm ischemia (WI) results in inflammatory and delayed fibrotic processes and remains a common clinical problem with serious consequences. Because tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a prominent proinflammatory factor implicated in the pathophysiology of acute renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), we hypothesized that FR167653 (FR), a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha and interleukin-1beta production, may reduce IRI.

METHODS: IRI was induced in male pigs by bilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 90 minutes (WI90), or unilateral renal clamping (90 minutes) after contralateral nephrectomy (1/2Nx90), or unilateral renal clamping without contralateral nephrectomy (WIuni90). FR was administered intravenously 60 minutes before WI (1 mg/kg/h), during WI, and continuously for 3 hours (1 mg/kg/h) during reperfusion in treated groups (FRWI90, FR1/2Nx90, or FRWIuni90). Blood and urine samples were collected between day 1 and 3 months after reperfusion for assessment of renal function. Kidneys were excised and renal tissues were collected at 3 months for morphologic and inflammation evaluation and protein analysis. Experimental groups were compared with sham operated (control) and heminephrectomized (Unif) groups without renal ischemia.

RESULTS: Three WI90 animals (43%) and five 1/2Nx90 (70%) were euthanized and necropsied at day 7 because of no urine production or poor conditions. Mortality was significantly improved after FR treatment. Survival was 100% in the control, Unif, WIuni90, and FR groups. In Unif groups, FR significantly reduced renal failure and bilateral renal ischemia (P < .05). At 3 months, proteinuria was significantly reduced in FR-treated groups (P < .01). Inflammatory cells count was also dramatically diminished in FR-treated pigs (P < .01 for CD3-positive cells). The second aspect of transient ischemia is the fibrotic process determined at 3 months. FR treatment was characterized by a reduction of renal fibrosis, particularly in Unif groups. TNF-alpha protein expression was diminished in FR-treated groups.

CONCLUSION: This is the first evidence that FR reduced the early and long-term effect of WI in the severe ischemia model. This effect was particularly marked against fibrosis and inflammation, which would contribute to deterioration of a patient's renal function.

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