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[Management of central venous catheter: prevention of thrombosis and bacteremia]

C Lomonte, C Basile
Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia 2009, 26 (1): 73-80
The use of central venous catheters (CVC) as vascular access has increased considerably in recent years, especially because of the progressive aging and increasingly severe comorbidities of the dialysis population. The main factors limiting the long-term use of a hemodialysis catheter are thrombosis and infection. Thrombosis can be treated with thrombolytic agents and prevented effectively by means of anticoagulants. CVC infections represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. This is the reason why systemic antibiotic therapy must be started very rapidly, based even on a simple clinical suspicion and in the absence of any confirmation of bacteremia. If antibiotic therapy fails, the CVC must be removed. The recent introduction of antibiotic lock therapy appears to be an effective means to prevent bacteremia. However, it must not be forgotten that the best way of preventing CVC-related bacteremia is by reinforcing all control procedures, with the active involvement of patients and staff.

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