Linoleic acid induces mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation via Ca2+/PKC, PI3K/Akt, and MAPKs

Min Hee Kim, Mi Ok Kim, Yun Hee Kim, Jin Sang Kim, Ho Jae Han
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 2009, 23 (1): 53-64

AIMS: This study investigated the effect of linoleic acid (LA) on cell proliferation and the related signaling cascade in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.

MATERIALS & METHODS: To examine effects of LA, mouse ES cells (ES-E14TG2a) were used. Moreover, DNA synthesis, glucose production, protein and mRNA expressions were measured.

RESULTS: LA increased DNA synthesis in a concentration- (> or = 10(-9) M) and time- (> or = 24 h) dependent manner, as determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and increased cell number. LA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels via regulation of phospholipase C (PLC) and activated protein kinase C (PKC). LA activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). U73122 (PLC inhibitor), staurosporine (PKC inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and Akt inhibitor blocked the phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPKs. In addition, LA stimulated gluconeogenesis through increase expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). LA-induced increases in the cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK 4, were blocked by U73122, staurosporine, LY294002, Akt inhibitor, PD98059, and metformin (gluconeogenesis inhibitor).

CONCLUSION: LA stimulated cell proliferation via Ca2+, PLC/PKC, PI3K/Akt, and p44/42 MAPKs signaling pathways in mouse ES cells.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"