Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: early and medium-term outcome

Corrado Lettieri, Stefano Savonitto, Stefano De Servi, Giulio Guagliumi, Guido Belli, Alessandra Repetto, Emanuela Piccaluga, Alessandro Politi, Federica Ettori, Battistina Castiglioni, Franco Fabbiocchi, Nicoletta De Cesare, Giuseppe Sangiorgi, Giuseppe Musumeci, Marco Onofri, Maurizio D'Urbano, Salvatore Pirelli, Roberto Zanini, Silvio Klugmann
American Heart Journal 2009, 157 (3): 569-575.e1

BACKGROUND: The role of emergency reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) resuscitated after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has not been clearly established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-hospital and postdischarge outcomes of STEMI patients surviving OHCA and undergoing emergency angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) within an established regional network.

METHODS: We prospectively collected data on 2,617 consecutive patients with STEMI treated with emergency PCI in 2005; in-hospital and 6-month outcomes of 99 patients who had experienced OHCA were compared with those of 2,518 patients without OHCA. The OHCA patients also underwent a cerebral performance evaluation after 12 months.

RESULTS: OHCA patients were at higher clinical risk at presentation (cardiogenic shock 26% vs 5%, P < .0001). Percutaneous coronary intervention was successful in 80% of the OHCA and 89% of the non-OHCA patients (P = NS). In-hospital mortality rates were 22% and 3%, respectively (P < .0001). Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality among OHCA patients were longer delay between the call to the emergency medical system and the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, P = .03), nonshockable initial rhythms (OR 10.5, P = .002), cardiogenic shock (OR 3.05, P = .035), and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 on admission (OR 2.9, P = .032). The 6-month composite rate of death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization among OHCA patients surviving the acute phase was comparable to that of non-OHCA patients (16% vs 13.9%, P = NS), and 87% of them showed a favorable neurologic recovery after 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS: Resuscitated OHCA patients undergoing emergency PCI for STEMI have worse clinical presentation and higher in-hospital mortality compared to those without OHCA. However, subsequent cardiac events are similar, and neurologic recovery is more favorable than reported in most previous series.

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