Endothelial endothelin-1 over-expression using receptor tyrosine kinase tie-1 promoter leads to more severe vascular permeability and blood brain barrier breakdown after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion

Justin W C Leung, Stephen S M Chung, Sookja K Chung
Brain Research 2009 April 17, 1266: 121-9
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is up-regulated in the endothelial cells and astrocytes under ischemia. Transgenic mice with astrocytic ET-1 over-expression (GET-1) showed more severe neurological deficit and larger infarct after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, the significance of endothelial ET-1 in ischemic brain injury was investigated using transgenic mice with the endothelial ET-1 over-expression (TET-1). Increased ET-1 level was observed in the TET-1 brain infarct core after transient MCAO. ET(A) receptor expression was induced in the penumbra and ET(A) antagonist (A-147627) partially normalized the infarct volume and neurological deficit. In the infarct core of TET-1 brain, superoxide, nitrotyrosine, and gp91(phox) levels were increased. TET-1 brain displayed increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression, water content, immunoglobulin leakage and decreased occludin level in the ipsilateral hemisphere indicative of BBB breakdown and hemispheric edema. Interestingly, AQP-4 expression was increased in the penumbra of TET-1 brain following transient MCAO leading to the water accumulation. Taken together, endothelial ET-1 over-expression and ETA receptor activation contributes to the increased oxidative stress, water accumulation and BBB breakdown after transient MCAO leading to more severe neurological deficit and increased infarct.


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