JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Clinical spectrum, presentation, and risk factors for mortality in infective endocarditis: a review of 68 cases at a tertiary care center in Turkey.

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and echocardiographic characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) at a tertiary care center in Turkey and to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality.

STUDY DESIGN: Based on a systematic retrospective review of clinical records covering 1997 to 2007, we analyzed data and outcomes of 68 patients (40 males, 28 females; mean age 51+/-20 years) with definite or possible IE according to the modified Duke criteria.

RESULTS: Native valve endocarditis (NVE) was seen in 28 patients (41.2%), and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) was seen in 38 patients (55.9%). Pacemaker endocarditis (PE) was observed in only two patients (2.9%). Nineteen patients (27.9%) had nosocomial IE. The most frequent predisposing factor for NVE was rheumatic heart disease (n=11; 39.3%). Echocardiography failed to show any signs of involvement in five patients (13.2%) with PVE. The most common causative microorganisms of NVE, PVE, and PE were staphylococci (n=28; 41.2%). At least one complication developed in 46 patients (67.7%), congestive heart failure being the most common (n=38; 55.9%). Forty-one patients (60.3%) underwent combined medical and surgical treatment. In-hospital mortality occurred in 17 patients (25%). Mortality rates were 37.5%, 30%, and 14.3% for early and late PVE and NVE, respectively. Mortality was significantly higher with nosocomial IE (57.9%) compared to 12.2% in the remaining patients. In multivariate analysis, septic shock (p=0.011) and nosocomial infection (p=0.032) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality.

CONCLUSION: Compared to the European series, IE in our cohort occurred in a relatively younger population, with rheumatic heart disease as the most common underlying heart disease. The rates of PVE, nosocomial IE, and surgical treatment were about the same.

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