There is lack of studies investigating procedures aiming at a decrease in perioperative mortality in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). During anesthetic evaluation, identification of patients with OSA as well as using a risk score has been recommended by the American Society of Anesthesiology in order to identify the best perioperative strategy. Perioperative attention should be focused on a secure airway and the duration of monitoring that is necessary regarding severity of OSA, surgical stress and respiratory function. Postoperatively, residual neuromuscular blockade and a supine position have to be avoided. Continuous pulse oximetry should be used as long as patients remain at increased risk and should be applied until oxygen saturation remains above 90% with room air during sleep. Opioids should be excluded for pain management whenever possible, and CPAP or NIPPV should be administered as soon as feasible after surgery to patients who have been receiving it preoperatively.
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