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Effect of transforming growth factor-beta1 on expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) gene in normal human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells

H Takeuchi, S Kubota, E Murakashi, T Fukada, S Hashimoto, M Takigawa, Y Numabe
Journal of Periodontal Research 2009, 44 (2): 161-9
19210343

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) plays an important role in wound healing and regulation of the extracellular matrix in periodontal tissue. However, the functional relationship between altered transforming growth factor-beta1 levels and CCN2/CTGF has not been extensively investigated in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. This study investigated the effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 on the expression of the CCN2/CTGF gene in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cells were isolated from normal periodontal tissues and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal essential medium/F12 containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Subconfluent cells were maintained under serum deprivation for 24 h then treated with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal essential medium/F12 containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (control) and 0.1, 1, 5 or 10 ng/mL of transforming growth factor-beta1 for 24, 48 or 72 h. The effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 on CCN2/CTGF mRNA expression were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. CCN2/CTGF protein was quantitatively analyzed using enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay. Subcellular distribution of CCN2/CTGF protein in both human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells was observed using immunofluorescence microscopy.

RESULTS: In both human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, the expression of CCN2/CTGF mRNA and CCN2/CTGF protein was significantly increased, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta1. Moreover, immunofluorescence analysis indicated that immunoreactivity to CCN2/CTGF showed a granular pattern of protein localization.

CONCLUSION: The expression of CCN2/CTGF mRNA and protein was induced by transforming growth factor-beta1 in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. These results suggest that CCN2/CTGF plays an important role in wound healing and in the regeneration of periodontal tissue.

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