Mechanisms of podocyte injury in diabetes: role of cytochrome P450 and NADPH oxidases

Assaad A Eid, Yves Gorin, Bridget M Fagg, Rita Maalouf, Jeffrey L Barnes, Karen Block, Hanna E Abboud
Diabetes 2009, 58 (5): 1201-11

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cytochrome P450 of the 4A family (CYP4A), its metabolites, and NADPH oxidases both in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis of podocytes exposed to high glucose and in OVE26 mice, a model of type 1 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Apoptosis, albuminuria, ROS generation, NADPH superoxide generation, CYP4A and Nox protein expression, and mRNA levels were measured in vitro and in vivo.

RESULTS: Exposure of mouse podocytes to high glucose resulted in apoptosis, with approximately one-third of the cells being apoptotic by 72 h. High-glucose treatment increased ROS generation and was associated with sequential upregulation of CYP4A and an increase in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and Nox oxidases. This is consistent with the observation of delayed induction of NADPH oxidase activity by high glucose. The effects of high glucose on NADPH oxidase activity, Nox proteins and mRNA expression, and apoptosis were blocked by N-hydroxy-N'-(4-butyl-2-methylphenol) formamidine (HET0016), an inhibitor of CYP4A, and were mimicked by 20-HETE. CYP4A and Nox oxidase expression was upregulated in glomeruli of type 1 diabetic OVE26 mice. Treatment of OVE26 mice with HET0016 decreased NADPH oxidase activity and Nox1 and Nox4 protein expression and ameliorated apoptosis and albuminuria.

CONCLUSIONS: Generation of ROS by CYP4A monooxygenases, 20-HETE, and Nox oxidases is involved in podocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 isoforms prevented podocyte apoptosis and reduced proteinuria in diabetes.

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