[Effect of maternal smoking on concentrations of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG) in the first trimester of pregnancy]

Joanna Gajewska, Alicja Ceran, Magdalena Chełchowska, Dariusz Borowski, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Renata Jaczyńska, Jerzy Zwoliński, Teresa Laskowska-Klita
Przegla̧d Lekarski 2008, 65 (10): 479-82
A combination of maternal serum levels of free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (free beta hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal nuchal transluency thickness (fetal NT) has been shown to be an effective approach to screening for fetal trisomies in the first trimestr of pregnancy. A maternal smoking habit is known to influence these serum markers in singleton pregnancies however it has not been yet completely explained. The aim of this study was the investigation of PAPP-A and beta hCG concentrations in smoking women in the first trimester of pregnancy. The study comprised 215 women between 11th and 14th weeks of gestation: 135 cigarette smokers (age range 19-43 years) and 80 nonsmokers (age range 21-42 years). Only normal singleton pregnancies were included. Smoking women were divided into two groups: 75 women smoking during all along the first trimester and 60 women, who stopped smoking before 6 week of gestation. Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and beta hCG were measured with the KRYPTOR rapid random-access immunoassay analyser (Brahms GmbH, Germany) using time-resolved amplified cryptate emission technology (TRACE). Combinated fetal nuchal translucency (NT), maternal age and biochemical risk estimates were calculated using the Fetal Medicine Foundation risk algorithm. We observed the lower of PAPP-A median values in both smoking groups by about 20% than in nonsmokers (0.86 MoM; 0.84 MoM versus 1.04 MoM; p < 0.01). We also indicated the lower values of beta hCG in smoking women in comparison to the nonsmoking controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. The concentrations of PAPP-A as well as beta hCG were similar in both groups of smoking women. Further studies will be continued to assessment of smoking influence before conception on maternal serum PAPP-A and beta hCG in the first trimester of pregnancy.

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